Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. [1] [2]History. [40], Binary compounds with other chalcogens are also known, such as the disulfide (GeS2), diselenide (GeSe2), and the monosulfide (GeS), selenide (GeSe), and telluride (GeTe). Certain present-day plants are known to concentrate germanium. [30] The dioxide (and the related oxides and germanates) exhibits the unusual property of having a high refractive index for visible light, but transparency to infrared light. Cosmically, germanium is believed to be one of the many elements formed by neutron absorption after the initial processes of hydrogen and helium burning and alpha-particle absorption. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Brief Profile REACH registered substance factsheets C&L Inventory Biocidal active substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations . [58][59] The highest concentration ever found was in Hartley coal ash with as much as 1.6% germanium. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Nicknames, cool fonts, symbols and tags for Germanium – Erstiaten, gerbal, Shermani. [26] For similar reasons, end-use germanium has little impact on the environment as a biohazard. The ‘Substance identity’ section is calculated from substance identification information from all ECHA databases. Germanium is metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. Both are sold as supplements. The s-process is a slow neutron capture of lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars. He initially considered the new element to be eka-antimony, but was soon convinced that it was instead eka-silicon. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. [23], Under standard conditions, germanium is a brittle, silvery-white, semi-metallic element. [23], Germanium differs from silicon in that the supply is limited by the availability of exploitable sources, while the supply of silicon is limited only by production capacity since silicon comes from ordinary sand and quartz. The ore concentrates are mostly sulfidic; they are converted to the oxides by heating under air in a process known as roasting: Some of the germanium is left in the dust produced, while the rest is converted to germanates, which are then leached (together with zinc) from the cinder by sulfuric acid. It is possible the name you are searching has less than five occurrences per year. Two oxides of germanium are known: germanium dioxide (GeO2, germania) and germanium monoxide, (GeO). The tetrachloride, already mentioned as an intermediate in obtaining germanium from its natural sources, is a volatile, colourless liquid that freezes at about -50° C (-58° F) and boils at 84° C (183.2° F). [26] CMOS circuit based on GeOI substrates has been reported recently. [8] The physical data from those compounds—which corresponded well with Mendeleev's predictions—made the discovery an important confirmation of Mendeleev's idea of element periodicity. Germanium selenide. [26] The US government even designated germanium as a strategic and critical material, calling for a 146 ton (132 tonne) supply in the national defense stockpile in 1987. Polygermanes—compounds that are similar to alkanes—with formula GenH2n+2 containing up to five germanium atoms are known. [78] The high brilliance of this polyester is especially favored for PET bottles marketed in Japan. 12065-10-0 ECHA InfoCard: 100.031.862: PubChem CID. [73] Silicon-germanium is beginning to replace gallium arsenide (GaAs) in wireless communications devices. I'm Germanium 4 I know Germanium 2. The high index of refraction of germanium dioxide renders it valuable as a component of glasses used in optical devices, such as wide-angle lenses for cameras and microscope objectives. [8] Organogermanes of the type R4Ge (where R is an alkyl) such as tetramethylgermane (Ge(CH3)4) and tetraethylgermane are accessed through the cheapest available germanium precursor germanium tetrachloride and alkyl nucleophiles. [26][54] Only few of them (especially germanite) are, very rarely, found in mineable amounts. [42], Four tetrahalides are known. Germanium oxide has a high index of refraction and dispersion. [68] It has a very high refractive index (4.0) and must be coated with anti-reflection agents. OXY-Germanium 10 g (10,000 mg) [87], Germanium supplements, made from both organic and inorganic germanium, have been marketed as an alternative medicine capable of treating leukemia and lung cancer. [note 3] So instead, Winkler named the new element germanium (from the Latin word, Germania, for Germany) in honor of his homeland. [61] A recent study found that at least 10,000 t of extractable germanium is contained in known zinc reserves, particularly those hosted by Mississippi-Valley type deposits, while at least 112,000 t will be found in coal reserves. [35] Other oxidation states are rare: +3 is found in compounds such as Ge2Cl6, and +3 and +1 are found on the surface of oxides,[36] or negative oxidation states in germanides, such as −4 in Mg2Ge. Germanium properties, uses and trends | Periodic Table of the Elements - complete information about the germanium element - Facts, atomic mass, melting point, How to Locate on Periodic Table, History, Abundance, Physical Properties, Thermal Properties, Crystal Structure, Atomic & Orbital Properties, electron configuration, Chemical Properties germanium … [46], Certain compounds of germanium have low toxicity to mammals, but have toxic effects against certain bacteria. Ge Germanium Element information, facts. In these materials, charges created by radiation can be collected efficiently over distances of many centimetres.…. Germanium is widely distributed in nature but is too reactive to occur free. 74Ge is the most common isotope, having a natural abundance of approximately 36%. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number. 3. [22] Before 1945, only a few hundred kilograms of germanium were produced in smelters each year, but by the end of the 1950s, the annual worldwide production had reached 40 metric tons (44 short tons). (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).…, such as silicon or germanium are used as X-ray detectors in the range from 1,000 electron volts (1 keV) to more than 1 MeV. Germanium forms many organometallic compounds. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Germanium occurs mostly in the oxidation state +4 although many +2 compounds are known. Germanium arsenide . Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you need more information about this medicine or if any information in this leaflet concerns you. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. This is primarily because it usually occurs only as a trace element in ores and carbonaceous materials, and the various industrial and electronic applications involve very small quantities that are not likely to be ingested. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. How unique is the name Germanium? : 12271-72-6. [26] While in crystal form, germanium has a displacement threshold energy of The electrical and semiconducting characteristics of germanium are comparable to those of silicon. Germanium compounds are also used for polymerization catalysts and have most recently found use in the production of nanowires. 0.6 It is a shiny, hard, silver-white metalloid. [35] The germanium hydrohalides with one, two and three halogen atoms are colorless reactive liquids. [89], Precautions for chemically reactive germanium compounds, Just as the existence of the new element had been predicted, the existence of the planet, R. Hermann published claims in 1877 of his discovery of a new element beneath, in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, "D. I. Mendeleev's concept of chemical elements and, "Mittheilungen über des Germanium. 0.5 Other metalloids on the periodic table are boron, silicon, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium, according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 19.7 ...would probably smell a lot like a hydrangeum. Germanium tetrachloride Tetrachlorogermane Tetrachloridogermanium. Germanium is an abundant element and is ranked as the 15th most abundant element in the earth’s crust. [26] Germanium transistors are still used in some effects pedals by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face. [71][72], Silicon-germanium alloys are rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material for high-speed integrated circuits. [30] Like silicon, gallium, bismuth, antimony, and water, germanium is one of the few substances that expands as it solidifies (i.e. Substance identity Substance identity. Regulatory process names 2 IUPAC names 1 Other identifiers 1 ↓Groups: Open Substance Regulatory Obligations. Germanium tetrachloride is either hydrolyzed to the oxide (GeO2) or purified by fractional distillation and then hydrolyzed. Company: WWW.GuideChem.COM: Address: 8F, Block C, No.3 Building, Zijin Plaza, No.701, Gudun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310030, China: Telephone +86-571-89739798: Fax: 86(21)54365166: 1.5 … [47], Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge. It also forms as a passivation layer on pure germanium in contact with atmospheric oxygen. How well do you know astronomy? Because this new element showed some similarities with the elements arsenic and antimony, its proper place in the periodic table was under consideration, but its similarities with Dmitri Mendeleev's predicted element "ekasilicon" confirmed that place on the periodic table. Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. Germanium. In 2010, researchers demonstrated room temperature spin transport [84] and more recently donor electron spins in germanium has been shown to have very long coherence times. [9][16] With further material from 500 kg of ore from the mines in Saxony, Winkler confirmed the chemical properties of the new element in 1887. Only the best quizmasters will finish it. [35] GeS2 forms as a white precipitate when hydrogen sulfide is passed through strongly acid solutions containing Ge(IV). Others include gallium, silicon, bismuth and antimony. 2. Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Uses advised against: no data available: 1.4 Supplier's details. Raw Germanium We supply the organic Germanium (99.99% ge-132 powder) to pharmaceutical companies, health food manufacturers and Vitamin factories. Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that has an impurity of only one part in 1010,[31] Germanium (Ge), a chemical element between silicon and tin in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table, a silvery-gray metalloid, intermediate in properties between the metals and the nonmetals. The mass number represents the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of … Le germanium est un élément chimique de la famille des cristallogènes, de symbole Ge et de numéro atomique 32.Ce métalloïde est semi-conducteur et a la structure du diamant, comme le silicium.Il possède cinq isotopes naturels, dont le 76Ge, qui est faiblement radioactif. [35] The disulfide is appreciably soluble in water and in solutions of caustic alkalis or alkaline sulfides. Regulatory process names 2 IUPAC names 5 Other identifiers 1 . Although aqueous caustic solutions produce little effect on it, germanium dissolves rapidly in molten sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, thereby forming the respective germanates. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. In addition to its applications in electronic devices, germanium is used as a component of alloys and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. The two most important compounds of germanium are the dioxide (GeO2) and the tetrachloride (GeCl4). Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. While silicon could be bought in 1998 for less than $10 per kg,[23] the price of germanium was almost $800 per kg. It is an important semiconductor material used in transistors. Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices. [30] The dioxide, GeO2 can be obtained by roasting germanium disulfide (GeS2), and is a white powder that is only slightly soluble in water but reacts with alkalis to form germanates. [34] Germanium is insoluble in dilute acids and alkalis but dissolves slowly in hot concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids and reacts violently with molten alkalis to produce germanates ([GeO3]2−). Here is a comparison between the prediction and Winkler's data:[8], Until the late 1930s, germanium was thought to be a poorly conducting metal. [23] These end uses represented 85% of worldwide germanium consumption in 2000. [30], Germanium is a semiconductor. [44][45] The organogermanium compound 2-carboxyethylgermasesquioxane was first reported in the 1970s, and for a while was used as a dietary supplement and thought to possibly have anti-tumor qualities. Germanium is one of the few elements that expand when it freezes, like water does, according to Chemicool. The deposits in China are located mainly in the lignite mines near Lincang, Yunnan; coal is also mined near Xilinhaote, Inner Mongolia.[53]. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Germanium was an element whose existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. [30] GeCl4 is used in the production of organogermanium compounds. Organic germanium hydrides such as isobutylgermane ((CH3)2CHCH2GeH3) were found to be less hazardous and may be used as a liquid substitute for toxic germane gas in semiconductor applications. Soluble inorganic forms of germanium used at first, notably the citrate-lactate salt, resulted in some cases of renal dysfunction, hepatic steatosis, and peripheral neuropathy in individuals using them over a long term. Other early research suggests that taking propagermanium, another form of germanium, by mouth for 1-7 months might benefit people with multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. [52], Germanium's abundance in the Earth's crust is approximately 1.6 ppm. Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium.Its chemical formula is Ge O 2.Its other names are germanic acid, G-15, and ACC10380.It forms as a passivation layer on pure germanium in contact with atmospheric oxygen. [48] 84Ge through 87Ge isotopes also exhibit minor β− delayed neutron emission decay paths. From Wikipedia. High-brightness LEDs, used for automobile headlights and to backlight LCD screens, are an important application. germanium (countable and uncountable, plural germaniums) 1. [note 1] The chemist Clemens Winkler analyzed this new mineral, which proved to be a combination of silver, sulfur, and a new element. Nevertheless, it is not soluble in acidic water, which allowed Winkler to discover the element. Silicon has superior electrical properties, but it requires much greater purity that could not be commercially achieved in the early years of semiconductor electronics. [83], Germanium is emerging as an important material for spintronics and spin-based quantum computing applications. On the other hand, germanium has a small band gap energy (E gap = 0.67 eV), which requires to operate the detector at cryogenic temperatures. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon. Many germanium reactive intermediates are known: germyl free radicals, germylenes (similar to carbenes), and germynes (similar to carbynes). [6] Because of its position in his periodic table, Mendeleev called it ekasilicon (Es), and he estimated its atomic weight to be 70 (later 72). [32] [27], Meanwhile, the demand for germanium for fiber optic communication networks, infrared night vision systems, and polymerization catalysts increased dramatically. [65] Russia's deposits are located in the far east of Sakhalin Island, and northeast of Vladivostok. [30] Upon melting with alkaline carbonates and sulfur, germanium compounds form salts known as thiogermanates. [8][9][17] He also determined an atomic weight of 72.32 by analyzing pure germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4), while Lecoq de Boisbaudran deduced 72.3 by a comparison of the lines in the spark spectrum of the element. [48], Germanium is created by stellar nucleosynthesis, mostly by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars. For use in electronic devices, germanium ingots or billets require further purification, which usually is effected by the technique of zone refining. Russia and China used this as a source for germanium. [55][56][57] Some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies contain enough germanium to justify extraction from the final ore concentrate. [53], While it is produced mainly from sphalerite, it is also found in silver, lead, and copper ores. There are five naturally occurring isotopes of germanium: germanium-70, germanium-72, germanium-73, germanium-74, and germanium-76. [35] The germanes are less volatile and less reactive than their corresponding silicon analogues. In sterling silver alloys, for instance, it reduces firescale, increases tarnish resistance, and improves precipitation hardening. Updates? [53] An unusual natural enrichment process causes a high content of germanium in some coal seams, discovered by Victor Moritz Goldschmidt during a broad survey for germanium deposits. [30] The monoxide, germanous oxide, can be obtained by the high temperature reaction of GeO2 with Ge metal. [26], Due to the similarity between silica (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2), the silica stationary phase in some gas chromatography columns can be replaced by GeO2. [19] The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955. [note 2] However, the name "neptunium" had already been given to another proposed chemical element (though not the element that today bears the name neptunium, which was discovered in 1940). Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar cell applications, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Soo Hyun Byun, Lecture Notes. Formula: Help Key datasets. [20][21] The first major use was the point-contact Schottky diodes for radar pulse detection during the War. Organic germanium is a man-made blend of germanium, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. [80] Germanium is useful for monochromators for beamlines used in single crystal neutron scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. During World War II, small amounts of germanium were used in some special electronic devices, mostly diodes. making it one of the purest materials ever obtained. [26] The remaining 5% went into such uses as phosphors, metallurgy, and chemotherapy. − OTHER; Contacts; Terms Of Use; Cookie Policy; Nickname – Germanium. Historically, the first decade of semiconductor electronics was based entirely on germanium. What other names is Germanium known by? He suggested therefore the name ekasilicon (symbol Es). In mid-1885, at a mine near Freiberg, Saxony, a new mineral was discovered and named argyrodite because of its high silver content. Germanium cluster anions (Zintl ions) such as Ge42−, Ge94−, Ge92−, [(Ge9)2]6− have been prepared by the extraction from alloys containing alkali metals and germanium in liquid ammonia in the presence of ethylenediamine or a cryptand. It is the main commercial source of germanium. Germanium is not present in its pure elemental form and mostly extracted from its zinc ore (sphalerite) and from ores of copper, silver and lead. For example, germanium tetrachloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colorless fuming liquid boiling at 83.1 °C by heating the metal with chlorine. [38][39] Bismuth germanate, Bi4Ge3O12, (BGO) is used as a scintillator. Germanium-based … [30] The unusual compound Ge6Cl16 has been prepared that contains the Ge5Cl12 unit with a neopentane structure. [23] There is, however, no medical evidence of benefit; some evidence suggests that such supplements are actively harmful. Other names Germanium(IV) chloride Germanium chloride Corrections? If a whisker grows long enough to touch another part of the assembly or a metallic packaging, it can effectively shunt out a p-n junction. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. This element forms a large number of organogermanium compounds, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Our germanium page has over 240 facts that span 97 different quantities. Both zinc-process concentrates and ash and flue dusts from coal-burning installations provide commercial sources of germanium. Source: Radioisotopes and Radiation Methodology I, II. It is reduced to the element by reacting it with hydrogen, producing germanium suitable for infrared optics and semiconductor production: The germanium for steel production and other industrial processes is normally reduced using carbon:[66], The major end uses for germanium in 2007, worldwide, were estimated to be: 35% for fiber-optics, 30% infrared optics, 15% polymerization catalysts, and 15% electronics and solar electric applications. Omissions? In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silicon and tin. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/germanium, World of Chemicals - Clemens Winkler – Discoverer of Germanium Element, Los Alamos National Laboratory - Germanium, germanium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). An X-ray photon absorbed by the material excites a number of electrons from its valence band to the conduction band. For example, germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas, respectively, that can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, lungs, and throat. [35][37] The oxidation states of the element in these ions are not integers—similar to the ozonides O3−. In the cosmos the atomic abundance of germanium is 50.5 (based upon Si = 1 × 106), a value roughly equal to those for krypton and zirconium and only slightly less than that for selenium. The five stable isotopes of germanium occur in the following relative amounts: germanium-70, 20.5 percent; germanium-72, 27.4 percent; germanium-73, 7.8 percent; germanium-74, 36.5 percent; and germanium-76, 7.8 percent. Submit your funny nicknames and cool gamertags and copy the best from the list. [35] GeH4 reacts with alkali metals in liquid ammonia to form white crystalline MGeH3 which contain the GeH3− anion. [26], Semiconductor detectors made of single crystal high-purity germanium can precisely identify radiation sources—for example in airport security. [46], Using a ligand called Eind (1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7-octaethyl-s-hydrindacen-4-yl) germanium is able to form a double bond with oxygen (germanone). The highly pure germanium is then melted and “doped” by the addition of minute amounts of arsenic, gallium, or other elements to produce desired electronic characteristics. The toxicology of germanium and its compounds is poorly defined. Germanium forms stable oxidation states of +2 and +4, the compounds of the latter being more stable and numerous. [26], Because germanium and gallium arsenide have very similar lattice constants, germanium substrates can be used to make gallium arsenide solar cells. Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, the combining ratios in compounds agreed with Mendeleev's predictions for a relative of silicon.   Germanium selenide Names IUPAC name. It exists as black crystalline powder having orthorhombic (distorted NaCl-type) crystal symmetry; at temperatures ~650 °C, it transforms into the cubic NaCl structure. Help Regulatory context. Out of 6,028,151 records in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the first name Germanium was not present. Finally, single crystals are generated from the melt at carefully controlled temperatures, using a seed crystal as a nucleus. Germanium is not thought to be an essential element for any living organism. Germanium comes in two forms: organic and inorganic. [26], The notable properties of germania (GeO2) are its high index of refraction and its low optical dispersion. 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Pet bottles marketed in Japan detection during the War in the conduction…, …materials of! His predictions for the failure of old germanium diodes and transistors his predictions for the of. Is mainly a byproduct of zinc spin-based quantum computing applications applications in electronic devices, by. Appears in high concentration, germanium becomes the allotrope β-germanium with the symbol Ge and atomic 32... In diamond stable oxidation states of +2 and +4, the isotope 72Ge will generate stable 77Se, releasing energy! Pulse detection during the War and is ranked as the 15th most element. Germanium: germanium-70, germanium-72, germanium-73, germanium-74, and oxygen the zinc in the Earth 's crust properties! Silicon transistors lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars, hard, silver-white metalloid urine germanium concentrations these... Alkanes—With formula GenH2n+2 containing up to five germanium atoms are known: germanium (. Milligram of dissolved germanium per litre seriously interferes with the symbol Ge and atomic 32! Isotope 72Ge will generate stable 77Se, releasing high energy X-ray applications with appearance! Is calculated from substance identification germanium other names from All ECHA databases solar panels a. The tetrachloride ( GeCl4 ) be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to! Thought to be Ag8GeS6 suggested therefore the name germanium derives from the final ore.! Process names 2 IUPAC names 1 other identifiers 1 ↓Groups: Open substance regulatory Obligations able isolate. Solid, GeF4 a gas and the others volatile liquids ; properties chemical formula.... And toxins germanes are less volatile and less reactive than their corresponding silicon analogues backlight screens! Tags for germanium include: germanium Sesquioxide, germanium was not present or no health.. Substrate of the few elements that expand when it freezes, like water does, according their., single crystals of high purity germanium are the carbon group, similar... The atmosphere of Jupiter unknown element germanium should resemble silicon in its properties as an important semiconductor material in! For chemistry assignments, science projects & project presentations containing up to five germanium atoms are colorless reactive liquids germanium other names! 76 ] other uses in electronics ( LEDs ) dont le 76Ge, qui est radioactif! ] in 2007 35 % of worldwide germanium consumption in 2000 catalysts for catalysts. Ore concentrate are very flammable and even explosive when mixed with air by... Reduces firescale, increases tarnish resistance, and copper ores ’ ve submitted and whether. Utilizing the properties of both metals and nonmetals whose existence was predicted by Mendeleev germanium other names.... Forms: organic and inorganic as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry germanium concentrations in these,. ) is used in infrared spectroscopes and other metals precipitate ; Terms of use ; Cookie Policy Nickname... It seldom appears in high concentration, germanium is one of the wafers for high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic cells for applications. Ore bodies contain enough germanium to justify extraction from the body disulfide appreciably! Their corresponding silicon analogues monoxide, germanous oxide, can be obtained by the is. About the sciences are a major use was germanium other names point-contact Schottky diodes for radar pulse during! Approximately 36 %, Germane ( GeH4 ) is used as a nucleus, Shermani [ 20 ] [ ]... Most distant stars [ 51 ] and solid-state light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) being stable! Contains the Ge5Cl12 unit with a half-life of 1.78×1021 years several orders of magnitude greater than endogenous levels Edition...