Health and Social Care and Leadership and Management of Care Service 23 Areas These standards have been developed specifically for those working in leading and health and social care … The transactional leader sets goals, gives direction and uses rewards to strengthen employee's behaviour towards meeting or exceeding established goals (McGuire and Kennerly 2006). Notwithstanding the crucial place of training and professional development in health management and leadership, evidence of the impact of such development interventions on competence and performance is limited and contentious. Clinical leadership is critical as it ensures high quality health care system. Thus, in addition to identifying core competencies, it may also be useful to identify specific competencies required by certain individuals or members of a professional body for effective performance [5]. Many leadership theories have been developed since past and still it is continuously adapting a new change for the effective leadership theory. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the concept of ‘leadership’ in relation to the health care sector. The health care sector is complex, characterised by constant changes and reforms. Countries include Australia [3, 10, 11], Canada [12, 13], Ireland [14], Latin America [15], New Zealand [16], South Africa [17, 18, 19], and the United States of America [20, 21, 22, 23]. The optimal approach recommended for identification and assessment of competencies involves the use of multiple methods to improve the credibility of findings [54, 62]. © 2018 The Author(s). Around only 23% i.e. Thus the overall performance of the organization depends upon the behaviour of leaders with their followers. He used to assign each of us a particular work for a day. However there is no evidence between the correlation of nature and the essential characteristics of leader nor on what an effective leader is. A competing school is the human relations approach to management which focuses on involvement of workers in the design of their work (participation, self-governance), motivating workers, satisfying their needs, promoting quality of life at work and managing conflict [27]. The people who work in healthcare organizations as leaders should understand the needs of the people they work with and should motivate them in order to increase their performance. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Thus, while the distinction between management and leadership arises from the differences in roles and functions, the reality is that a role is often unconsciously chosen and not outlined explicitly in the organisation [36]. Leadership and management are often compared under the same platform. 1 Leadership and Leadership Development in Health Care: The Evidence Base Professor Michael West The King’s Fund and Lancaster University Management School Kirsten Armit, Dr Lola Loewenthal Faculty of Medical Leadership Thus, in addition to identifying the essential competencies required by health management and leadership workforces generally, the health care sector should also focus on the competencies required by specific groups and organisations. These theories of management and leadership can be applied in the work setting to fit and suit situations, the environment and the personality of the team member involved. Medical leaders should look at the following questions: Which is more effective way to deal with the workers, benefits such as salary raises and public praise, or sticks, such as threat of termination and reduction in compensation? This is achieved through a review of key studies on health management and leadership to provide contextual understanding of the concept and identify key areas of focus by health care organisations and researchers related to leadership in the health care sector. In the light of this, different training and professional development strategies are currently being used to address identified gaps in proficiencies, develop new competencies and improve existing ones. Reference this. Fielder (1967), Schein (1980) and Vroom and Yetton (1973). Here the emphasis is on personal attributes and qualities as opposed to that of traditional source of authority and power or target driven incentives derived from business culture (Jumaa 2005). This thing worked as an incentive amongst all of us and thus we became more enthusiastic towards our work. This is not surprising, given the fact that health care organisations are comprised of human systems where people of diverse backgrounds interact with one another for successful management of the health care system [66], and provision of safe, effective, and high-quality patient care [67, 68]. He was fully dedicated to the company and worked with whole heartedness. Intelligence, initiative and self-assurance. One of the main goals of competency identification and assessment in health care organisations is to facilitate the development of competency or competence frameworks which are applicable to specific organisations or groups of individuals. These theories are beyond the scope of this chapter. It is an innovative global pharmaceutical company that discovers, manufacture and markets a wide range of healthcare products. Personalisation is about giving people much more choice and control over their lives in all social care settings. By using such theories, teams can work effectively and have a good standard of communication and unison. The focus on competencies has been informed by the need to develop strong and competent health management and leadership workforces, given the pivotal roles of leaders from health management and clinical backgrounds in driving changes and leading development in health care organisations. 2002). Whilst on the other side leadership is about being visionary, anticipating change, motivating and inspiring workers and focusing on development of individuals. Thus healthcare commission urged NHS organisations to investigate and address these issues and try to get solution for it through more effective leadership approach. Along with this 8% of staff said they had experienced some discrimination at work in the previous 12 months. A more common approach, however, is to focus training and professional development on expanding the capacity of individual managers and leaders to be effective in management or leadership roles [77]. Following his instructions we all went and did our report writing work. There are many leadership theories which underlie management and leadership practices; prominent among them is contingency theory. Thus, managers (generalist trained managers, professional health service managers) fill management roles, perform management functions and provide leadership. Majority of patients said they have trust and confidence in the clinical staff. Leadership, on the other hand, revolves around vision, ideas, direction, and inspiration; it establishes direction [28, 29] and motivates others [30, 31] to achieve organisational goals rather than a focus on day-to-day implementation of those goals [24]. Evidence-based information on leadership theories from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. You can view samples of our professional work here. Transactional leadership theory. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Although the concept of core competencies engenders understanding and collaboration among individuals, it has been criticised for not taking into consideration the specific needs of each manager in line with his or her dominant management or leadership role [5]. He was our marketing department manager. The basis for the use of training and professional development to improve health management and leadership competence is found in the evidence that human behaviour can be developed in adulthood [70], and that individuals can change their behaviour, moods and self-images through training [71] and education [72]. A ‘competency model’ is a framework which contains competency statements in which essential knowledge, skills and attitudes desirable for specific roles are described [57], or a collection of competencies required for successful performance [58]. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. The answer is NO, they differ from each other in many ways. Skill, on the other hand, refers to the possession of the capacity to successfully carry out physical or cognitive tasks to achieve a specific outcome [54], while an attitude refers to “a relatively enduring organisation of beliefs, feelings, and behavioural tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols “([55] p. 150). HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Bennis (1992), Kotter (1982), Mant (1983) and Peters and Waterman (1982). Closely related to the notion of ‘shared leadership’ is a concept known as ‘distributed leadership’. According to Bass (1990:19), "leadership is an interaction between two or more members of the group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situations, perceptions and expectations of the members." The following topics are different from, but important to, the functions of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Contact our London head office or media team here. All work is written to order. The health care sector is characterised by constant reforms aimed at the efficient delivery of safe, effective, and high-quality care. The term ‘proficiency’, or ‘competence level’, refers to the level of expertise for a particular competency. The focus on transformational (and transactional) leadership was also identified in a systematic review performed by Gilmartin and D’Aunno (2007), examining health care leadership research from 1989 to 2005. This document aims to address some of the issues they face but cannot cover all relevant material. Thus it can be concluded from the above two studies that the NHS staff were generally satisfied with their jobs. Health care management is a growing field. After that, you could go on to do postgraduate study, such as a Master’s degree. Adapting leadership to suit changing context. He always welcomed new ideas and suggestions for marketing. In view of the practices associated with transactional leadership, some authors have connected this leadership style with management functions [42, 43, 47, 48]. The delivery of clinical care is based on careful research to determine the most effective way of providing care for patients. Effective leadership is required to lead and drive changes at all levels of the health system to actualise the goals of the ongoing reforms in health care organisations. This essay will critically analyze the concept of management and leadership theories specifically in relation to advanced practice and healthcare. less than quarter of staff agreed that senior managers involve staff in important decisions and only 22% agreed that communication between staff and senior management is effective. These domains include communication, interpersonal relationships, business skills, knowledge of the health care environment, professionalism, and leadership [5, 10, 11, 65]. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The manager under whom I used to work was a 'transactional' leader. A major point of contention in health management and leadership is whether competencies are similar across countries and organisational contexts, or are contextually sensitive. Level 5 Leadership and Management of Health and Social Care: Practice Qualification Handbook 4 Unit 521 Lead and manage person/child‐centred practice through independent advocacy 34 Guidance for delivery 38 Resources 38 They are listened to and treated with lot of dignity. These approaches include literature review, position description analysis, the Delphi technique, surveys, interview of job incumbents and focus groups. He had good interactions with everybody in the team and always used to motivate us. These qualities reflect the values and beliefs intrinsic within the Government's political stance. The motto of the group is 'Improving people's lives through innovation'. The whole company was perfectly organised and the management was distributed in a systematic manner depending on the type of department. The chapter examines the concept of leadership in the health care sector within the context of the recent drive by health care organisations to identify essential competencies and training required by health management and leadership workforces for effective performance in roles. Relational Theories- Relational Theorists recognize leadership as a reciprocal interaction between leaders and followers with the hallmark of a good leadership being transformation of the followers who are committed to the leader’s While some authors have stated that the evidence linking competency-based training to improved competence and performance remains inconclusive [79, 80, 81], others have posited that a positive relationship exists between training and improvement in competence and performance outcomes [22, 82]. This is evident in the growing interests in the concepts of health management and leadership, especially since the turn of the century, as reflected in the prevalence of studies on health management and leadership across different countries. Most of them were satisfied with their jobs but some part of the staff reported poorer work-life balance and higher level of work related stress. He was a true example of 'transformational' leader. Leadership is one of the roles that managers have to play and is therefore a subset of management. The transformational leadership style is described by Markham (1998) as collaborative, consultative and consensus seeking and attributing power to interpersonal skills and personal contact. The response rate for the patients varied from 63% for the adult in patient survey and 42% for the mental health survey. Transactional leaders are associated with contingency rewards (exchange of rewards for compliance) and management by exception (either actively or passively) [27, 36]; they emphasise legitimate power and respect for rules and tradition [46]. For example- On the first day of my training I was told to go and check the ware house of the company where the finished goods were stored and to write the Standard Operating Procedure for dispensing the goods. It articulates a vision for betterment of the healthcare services and thus allows one to work for raising the standards of care and treatment. Current interests in health management and leadership are, however, geared towards identification and assessment of essential competencies (that is knowledge, skills, and attitudes) required by health managers and leaders for effective performance in roles. A total of 568 NHS organisations and 312,348 patients took part. Management and leadership are important for the delivery of good health services. 75% of staff was satisfied or very satisfied as well as satisfaction with the amount of responsibility. On graduating from this course, you’ll be able to apply for leadership roles within your own career pathway or move into higher management positions elsewhere. These are categorised in 3 areas mainly: However the trait theory has certain weakness and problems like; the traits are very difficult to define accurately or to understand fully; many exceptional leaders do not possess all identified leadership traits; it cannot be concluded that a person is better or worse as a manager or leader only by possessing one or two traits. '( Mullally 2001). Arising from changes in the social context of health care, the dichotomy between management and leadership in the sector is increasingly narrowing [37]. Management is seen as seeking order and maintaining stability while leadership is seen as seeking adaptive and constructive change. Intellectual stimulation can be achieved by maintaining mental and intellectual alertness and acuity which can be gained by encouraging open criticism and debate of wide ranging evidence base thus it helps to form the foundation of substantive change. Good managers should strive to The focus We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. While NHS should also do more in order to improve the communication between staff and senior management. Competence is the ability to consistently produce the outcomes (of behaviour) required for effective achievement of organisational goals [57]. Management and leadership are important for the delivery of good health services. The New Labour Government included leadership as the part of their modernisation of the NHS and has been enshrined in the work of the NHS Leadership Centre, created in 2001as a part of NHS Modernisation Agency (The NHS Plan, DH 2000). The different qualities and characteristics of an exemplary leader and identify leadership styles in congruence to health care and self. According to Manley (2000) the transformational leadership approach is highly beneficial for the healthcare organisations as it has positive effects in the organisational change. The following case study is based on my experience of working at a Multinational Pharmaceutical company, Zydus-Cadila healthcare limited, India. To measure the effectiveness of the new leadership framework in NHS, healthcare commission (now-Care Quality Commission) conducted a NHS staff survey. He was never after rewards from the company. Certain competencies are considered as crucial for successful performance of organisations; such competencies are known as ‘core competencies’, a concept first advocated by Prahalad and Hamel [56]. One change which has significantly affected the social context of health care is the increasing involvement of clinicians in the planning, management, and organisation of care in line with the concept of clinical leadership. Generates employee commitment to the vision. they will be allowed to go home 1 hour early. A best fit approach. Leadership and Management are emphasized within health care as important aspects of the health care professionals’ role. The health care environment is complex and dynamic; it experiences problems peculiar to its unique characteristics as well as those besetting organisations in other sectors [1, 2, 3]. An integrative way of looking at leadership, more specific to task work group and position of leader within that work group. Those who were unable to answer his question were scolded. (Vandenberghe et al. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. One important outcome of transformational leadership is ‘empowerment’, which entails sharing of leadership process between the leader and the followers [34, 42]. This can be achieved through self perception and feedback from other colleagues. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Manley (2001) identifies six transformational leadership processes in practice; Using these processes, transformational leaders assist the people working with them to become empowered and take responsibility of ownership to practice challenges and solutions (Sashkin and Burke 1990). It requires a well balanced management and leadership approaches to effectively run the organisation. However despite of many other leadership theories emerged today, trait theory has not been completely disregarded. Competency refers to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes which health leaders require for effective performance in roles [10, 50, 51], and can be improved with training and development interventions [51]. These studies described significant correlation between leadership effectiveness and following traits: Bass (1990), based on several findings from studies developed a profile of traits that are marked in effective leaders. Several leadership theories have emerged over the past suggesting practical applications of leadership and its concept. Slowly over a time it was realised that the way he was leading us was different from others. According to him managers do things right i.e. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? The results of the survey showed that job satisfaction remained high among most of the staff. Other terms commonly associated with competency are ‘capability’ and ‘capacity’. According to Gopee and Galloway (2009), management is about measuring and monitoring performance against pre-determined goals, following policies and procedures, controlling and organizing the structure and systems, working within resource allocation and maximizing output and productivity for the organization. He was very supportive at work and had a vision for company's success. Thus, in the health care sector, a ‘managerialism’ model, dominated by generalist trained managers, is being replaced by a unified (collective) leadership structure for the effective running of health care services. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! *Address all correspondence to: r.ayeleke@auckland.ac.nz. Introduction This essay will discuss leadership, the various definitions and theoretical concepts in context to leadership. Headquarter of the company is located in Ahmedabad, India. The way he used to lead us was truly inspirational. Furthermore, the concept of ‘distributed leadership’ [35], which suggests one does not need to have a formal position of managerial authority to be a ‘leader’, further renders the debates on management/leadership dichotomy as less important. In the health care sector, approaches and priorities may differ for health management and clinical leadership development. The ability to inspire and motivate depends upon the process of visioning. About 850 eligible people were identified from each trust that took part. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Although management and leadership may represent two distinct disciplinary and practice areas, distinguishing between the two concepts in practice may be difficult [24]. This much has also been recognised by the World Health Organisation, which has advocated the need to strengthen management and leadership capabilities at all levels of the health system [60, 61]. While in terms of staff engagement mixed results were seen. According to Watson (1983), managers mainly rely upon 3 'Ss' namely strategy, structure and systems, whereas leaders depends on 4 soft 'Ss' called style, staff, skills and shared goals. The difference may be summarised as activities of vision and judgment (effectiveness) versus activities of mastering routines (efficiency)”. Thus a transformational leader is 'the catalyst for creating new innovative organisational paradigms' (Murphy 2005 :135). As pointed out earlier, several studies have been conducted on health management and leadership. The Concept of Leadership in the Health Care Sector, Leadership, Suleyman Davut Göker, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76133. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Other theories which have their roots in contingency theory include transactional and transformational leadership theories, which were introduced by Burns in 1978 [36]. Transformational leadership is considered superior to the transactional leadership style as the whole workforce is developed as the part of the process whose main function is delivering organisation's objective. Her leadership and management style permeated nursing management for decades, and continued to dominate health care settings established and managed by the religious orders. To achieve this vision one should start working for the 'future vision' by learning from the 'past realities' and should show a collective effort where everyone has an opportunity to participate in the creation (Fenton 2003). 1. As a leader or aspiring leader in health or social care practice you will have the opportunity to further develop your knowledge of leadership and management theories and strategies, enabling you to ethically manage people and Thus it is seen that the two leadership approaches i.e. At the same time the UK Nat Transactional and Transformational theories have gained popularity for Leadership in Healthcare Organizations out of the various leadership theories available. The health care sector is characterised by constant reforms aimed at the efficient delivery of safe, effective, and high-quality care. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Results were published in first week of august 2004 and the Commission reported that patients gave positive opinions about the high quality care they received at the NHS. Idealised influence; 2. (Jumma and Jasper 2005). By Reuben Olugbenga Ayeleke, Annette Dunham, Nicola North and Katharine Wallis, Submitted: December 17th 2017Reviewed: March 2nd 2018Published: September 19th 2018. Critically evaluate at least two leadership theories in the context of healthcare management. According to (Bennis and Nanus [32] p. 21), “managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing. (Gopee and Gathway, 2009). The NHS should also make some effective plans to value staff and engage them successfully in important decisions-making. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. On the other hand, such training or professional development interventions can be targeted at strengthening the collective capabilities of the entire management and leadership workforce to achieve ‘leadership development’ [78]. 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