Desired flavors, color, and binders can be added at this stage. Textured vegetable proteins are products that have been transformed from a flour-type material into one which has a meat-like texture. Ingredients such as colours, flavours, seasonings, and nutritional additives may be added to textured proteins used in the canning industry. TVP is made from vegetable protein, most commonly from soybeans. Examples are Nigerian dawadawa, Ivory Coast soumbara, African iru and ogiri, Indian kenima, Japanese natto, and Thai thua-nao. The word tofu means “meat with no bone,” and the level of protein in tofu is around 9%. The mechanically-processed soy flour is made by dehulling the beans, extruding the soy cotyledons to free the oil, mechanically pressing the extruded material to remove a portion of the oil, and then grinding the resulting cake. A typical die is shown in Fig. These products are characterized by a random spongy meat-like structure that imitates the chewy texture of meat when hydrated with water. Textured vegetable protein (TVP), sometimes called textured soy protein, is a low-cost protein source most often made from soybeans. Examples are sauces (Chinese soy sauce, Japanese shoyu and miso, Indonesian kecap and tauco Malaysian kicap, Taiwanese inyu, Philippine taosi, and Korean kanjang, doenjang, and kochujang), fish sauces (Vietnamese nuoc mam, Philippine patis, and Malaysian budu), and fish pastes (Philippine bagoong, Malaysian belachan, Vietnamese mam, Cambodian prahoc, Indonesian trassi, and Korean jeotkal). To prepare products for consumption, the fibrous chunks are hydrated in water, and usually absorb 3 times their weight in water when re-hydrated. The first extruder served as a pre-cooker and the second as a forming device. Upon hydration, its structure is layered and fibrous, and sizes are very similar to whole-muscle meat. As we increase the protein content of these snacks, the texture of these snacks will be affected. Discussions about GM food are often very emotional and unfortunately not often based on facts. Much like tofu, it can be seasoned to any taste, so it’s a great substitute for … This superstar ingredient can be your trick to making quick meatless meals, but first, you'll need to know what TVP is and how to make it work for your dishes. 15.5. As in the other studies, cooking losses were decreased and sensory properties were adversely affected. Therefore, in these countries, if a soy isolate contains less than 0.9% of GM material, it is called non-GM but not GMO-free as the term GMO-free would require zero tolerance and the presence of absolutely no GM material, which cannot be reliably verified. Soy proteins are generally not applied in salami except in applications where a gel is produced out of soy protein isolate and water (see Section 7.1.2.1 under Chapter 7: Fermented Salami: Non–Heat Treated). TVP is a trademarked brand name that has become the frequent identifier. 15.2. Raw materials and their properties are very similar to meat analogs and meat extenders. Rate it: TVP: Technology Visits Program. Today, different materials, made out of the soy bean, are used in meat products, including the following. It’s lightweight and has a long shelf life, which makes it perfect … Chunk and minced styles of meat extender and analogs. Nowadays, the presence of GM material can be detected reliably and with statistical back-up to a level as low as 0.9%. Cooking is done inside the barrel where the product creates its own heat and friction generated by the pressure exerted by the screw(s) inside the barrel. Since USDA and FDA regulations are changing to reflect new technology, it is important to consult with the USDA and FDA in conjunction with private legal counsel for the latest regulations. Globulins such as glycinin (11s) and β-conglycinin (7s) are the major functional components of soy protein, as regards the emulsification of fat and gel formation respectively. The authenticity of non-GM soy products is commonly examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, and/or the entire production of the soy proteins may be covered by an identity-preserved (IP) programme. Specialists in plastic mouldings, TVP, founded in 2003, is currently producing 1.5 million components per month for various multi-national companies in a multitude of sectors such as the oil and gas industry, agriculture, the Ministry of Defence, manufacturing and DIY. Riaz, in Handbook of Food Proteins, 2011. Methionine may be added to soy protein products to give a PER value equal to casein. Barry Farm Textured Vegetable Protein Chunks, $17. TVP stands for Texturized Vegetable Protein. A slurry is generally prepared in a ratio of 1:2.5 and a certain percentage of the slurry is added to a meat product such as a hot dog in place of real meat for cost reasons. The product, which is often sold in bulk, usually appears as dried, light brown chunks or cubes that have a rough, almost cardboard like texture to the touch. Although the process to produce vegetable protein products is similar to soy extenders, it often employs two single-screw or one twin-screw extruder. The SMA product is conveyed to a dryer where long retention times are required to remove water from the dense structure. 15.4. This product is hydrated with water to make various meat items. The sized textured protein product is then dried and packaged for shipment. The difference between soy isolate or concentrate in injected meat products becomes even less distinguishable when other additives such as carrageenan and/or starch are applied at the same time. It is made from defatted soy flour and is very low in fat (3%). It can extend ground meat in canned products such as patties and meatballs. Since these snacks are consumed in dry form, they should be resistant to breakage during processing. For products in which the fresh meat to dry soy protein is greater than 13 to 1 (13 parts fresh meat to one part dry soy protein), the label only need reflect soy protein in its proper position in the ingredient list. However, since TVP is so … TVP is made from soy flour after the soy oil has been extracted. The mass is then reformed into vegetable-based meat analogs such as ham, chicken or beef. The resulting product will have approximately 70% protein. Hence, the addition of salt supports solubility of soy protein (very similar to meat protein). Defatted soy flour has a protein content of around 52% (dry basis). The die is designed in a very streamlined fashion to limit expansion that would result in a dense product. Microwave heating of beef-soy loaves resulted in increased loss of moisture and reduced beef flavor (Ziprin and Carlin, 1976). Examples of boiled rice–raw shrimp–raw fish mixtures are Philippine balao balao and burong dalag. Gelation is the capability to form a gel by producing a structural network and substances such as water, carbohydrates, lipids and others can be immobilized within this three-dimensional network. A typical formulation for fibrous protein is as follows: It is a more efficient, high-capacity method for producing products very similar to the spun protein isolates. The beany taste was the result of high levels of raffinose and stachyose in the bean and, owing to biotechnological changes, the amount of those substances in soy bean today are greatly reduced. The size and length of the barrel and the shape of screws and dies can be varied for different applications. They normally absorb two to three times their weight in water and have good fat-absorption properties. Nutritional Properties and Feeding Values of Soybeans and Their Coproducts. Myths and misunderstandings run VERY high about TVP ® (Texturized Vegetable Protein). Therefore, in these countries, if a soy isolate contains less than 0.9% of GM material it is called non-GM material, but not GMO free, as the term GMO free would require zero tolerance and the absolute absence of any GM material, which cannot be reliably verified. TVP stands for textured vegetable protein. TVP is the actual vapor pressure of a liquid product at a specified temperature and is measured with a sample cylinder. Stale taste and aroma were almost absent in reheated patties containing soy, suggesting that if components responsible for stale taste and aroma were present, other components masked the stale flavors. Although protein is the primary ingredient consideration during the creation of plant-based meat, the final products are typically a mix of multiple types of plant-based ingredients, including other nutrients such as fats, carbohydrates, and fiber. Fibrous soy protein formation is reliant on the use of specific, high-viscosity soy protein isolates, vital wheat gluten, and starch. In whole-muscle injected ham products, soy isolates are applied worldwide in order to add firmness and texture to the product. Some food fermentations – such as Japanese shoyu, miso, and sake; South African maize and sorghum beers, mageu, and mahewu; and Nigerian ogi and gari – have been industrialized. Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP) is a concentrated protein product that is generally made from soybeans. Based on those technical capabilities, most countries have adopted this level. An alternative method to solvent extraction is available to make soy flour. Rate it: TVP: The Verve Pipe. These meat substitutes can also be called meat analogues or meat alternatives. Chemical Composition of Soy Protein Sources Used in Pet Foods. In this case soybeans are mechanically processed. Soy flour should have 60–70 PDI and a protein level of 50%. Similarly, veggie burgers — even those that do not simulate meat (e.g., black bean burgers) — are included in this definition because they serve as a direct replacement for a beef, chicken, or fish patty. This plasticized material is extruded through the die openings and expansion occurs as the product is released to ambient pressures. Figure 15.3 shows textured vegetable proteins with different colors. Different color (caramel for beef appearance), flavors and other minor additive or processing aids can be introduced in the preconditioner at this stage for thorough mixing with the raw material entering an extruder barrel. Granular or flake-like textured vegetable protein products can be used in canned foods. Plant-based meat product mind map. 22.16. Steinkraus, in Encyclopedia of Microbiology (Third Edition), 2009. The lower pressure employed inboard of the die reduces product expansion and disruption to the laminar structure. Also, the protein content needs to be diluted to avoid over-expansion. Soy isolates exhibiting a protein content greater than 90% are used for the production of a soy gel. A popular meat alternative around the world, TVP is made from defatted soy flour and comes in several shapes and sizes. TVP can be found in frozen lasagna. To transform SMA into a ready-to-eat meat alternative requires hydration in water and flavors, which takes 15–20 minutes under boiling conditions or as much as several hours in cold water. A typical structured meat analog is shown in Fig. Whereas many countries are comfortable with the use of GM soy, others, such as Europe and Australia, show great resistance toward GM soy protein. In this section of the extruder, major transformation of the vegetable protein take place. 15.9. Examples of lactic acid–fermented cheeses are Chinese sufu and tofu-ru. A gel made out of soy isolates is a three-dimensional matrix, and water is held within this matrix. Other advantages of textured vegetable proteins use in canned food products include: The extruded products are dried to less than 8% moisture and under normal storage conditions have a shelf-life of about one year. The SMA is characterized by a meat-like, striated layer structure that imitates chunks of whole-muscle meat as shown in Fig. The Polish public broadcaster TVP will launch its latest thematic channel TVP Dokument later today (November 19). By removing both the insoluble fiber as well as the soluble carbohydrate from defatted soy flakes, soy isolate is obtained which has a protein content of 90–93% (dry basis). The temperature at this point actually melts the protein into a visco-elastic, plasticized mass having a very high viscosity. Because it is cheap and widely available, it is popular among people cooking on a budget. It's especially valuable for people who don't eat meat, since plant-based foods generally contain less protein than foods from animals. After extrusion, TMP can be dried, frozen, or retort packaged. For texturized soy fiber, a stream-line die setup that includes a venturi, followed by a long die spacer, then the final die is required. Fibrous soy protein products are generally available in chunks that are approximately 15–25 mm in diameter by 30–70 mm long. Alkaline fermentations. Extrusion can be a noncooking process or heat can be generated during extrusion. Television Personalities, an English post-punk band; Televisión Pública Argentina, an Argentine public broadcaster; Telewizja Polska, a Polish public broadcaster; TV Pendidikan, a former Malaysian educational channel; TV Patrol, a Philippine primetime newscast; Science and technology. This results in savings based on the ingredient costs. Double or DDC preconditioners provide better mixing and retention time, resulting in a better texturized vegetable protein (Rokey et al., 1992). Here as well, the addition of soy proteins increases firmness, texture and succulence of the product whilst the amount of purge is reduced in packed products as well. Extruders can be single or twin-screw in design. For making high-moisture meat analog, a special long die is required at the end of the extruder barrel. Most soy producers also have an IP program in place in which all stages of the manufacturing process (such as seeding of the bean, harvesting, transport to the processing plant, and processing of the soybean) are closely checked and monitored to ensure that non-GM soy never comes in touch with GM material and cross-contamination is excluded. This slurry is then minced or pressed through differently sized blades to obtain granules of different sizes, which are subsequently dried. Soy proteins, in order to be fully functional, require sufficient water to be fully hydrated, and the terms solubility, hydration and dispersibility of soy are used interchangeably. The temperature of moist, proteinaceous dough is rapidly elevated in the last 2–5 seconds of retention time within the extruder barrel. Miscellaneous » Food & Nutrition. For products with ratios between 13:l and 10:1, the label should have a qualifying phrase that reads ‘textured vegetable protein added’ or similar wording. Soy isolates are also excellent emulsifiers of fat as they have a high number of lipophilic (fat-loving or hydrophobic) groups within their molecules and can hold fat and water together in a meat product to create a stable network by the addition of energy (such as cutting in the bowl cutter). To manufacture TVP, the defatted soy four is mixed with warm water and a slurry is obtained. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Binders such as egg albumin are added to hold bundles of fibres together. You may have even eaten TVP before and never even realized it, as many food companies use it in their products for cheaper production prices, such as Betty Crocker Bac-Os Bacon Flavor Bits and Hormel No Beans Chili. The amount of slurry introduced into a meat product depends on the desired ‘quality’ of the finished product as high levels of added TVP slurry reduce product characteristics such as firmness quickly. Flaked TVP is heavily used in meat products such as burgers, patties, pies and salami in order to imitate lean meat by substituting meat with hydrated flakes of TVP. Tempe involves a lactic acid fermentation during the soaking of the soybeans. Discussions about GM food are often very emotional and unfortunately not often based on facts. Textured vegetable protein, or TVP, is a soy byproduct that’s created when manufacturers collect soy oil. The size and shape of extruded material is controlled by the size and speed of the cutting knife on the extruder. Products made from this raw material can be utilized in much the same fashion as those produced from defatted soy flour or from soy concentrate, but they will tend to have darker colors and softer textures due to their extensive heat treatment and lower protein content. It is produced from soy flour after the soybean oil has been extracted, then cooked under pressure, extruded, and … In a PCR test, a small string of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is replicated many times and modification, as well as the level of modification, of the protein can be seen. The larger sized products in this category are often used as basic meat analogs. Alternatively, they can be classified, as the Sudanese traditionally do, not on the basis of microorganism or commodity but not on the basis of function as Kissar (staples) – porridges and breads, such as aceda and kissra; Milhat – sauces and relishes for the staples; marayiss – 30 types of opaque beer, clear beer, date wines, and meads, and other alcoholic drinks; and Akil-munasabat (foods for special occasions). The early Chinese, for example, used soy to make tofu, a product that is still produced today. Fermented foods were originally produced by each household, and expanded to a cottage industry as consumer demand required. A special extruder configuration and die design is used to produce this type of product. High-salt meat-flavored amino acid–peptide sauce and paste fermentations. TVP is extruded (or otherwise textured by kneading or mixing) protein in the form of small chunks or shreds and is not typically seasoned or prepared for direct consumption. The effect on quality depends on the level of TVP added. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121579203500132, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857096784000087, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845697587500150, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781855737235500269, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781893997646500214, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123739445001218, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978184569050250006X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128044452000065, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128095980000044, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005965217046, Marjorie P. Penfield, Ada Marie Campbell, in, Experimental Food Science (Third Edition), Ingredients used in the preparation of canned foods, A Complete Course in Canning and Related Processes (Fourteenth Edition), To understand better how the extruder processes. 15.7. Ali et al., (1982) substituted 30% TSP or cooked ground soybeans for ground beef in meat loaves. Globulins such as glicinin and beta-glicinin are the major functional components of soy protein, as concerns the emulsification of fat and gel formation, respectively. They are also used to totally replace meat in meatless entrees. Alcoholic fermentations. What Is Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP)? To manufacture TVP, the defatted soy four is mixed with warm water and a slurry is obtained. Increased moisture content in extended patties does not increase panel scores for juiciness (Bowers and Engler, 1975). Nowadays, the presence of GM material can be detected reliably and with statistical back-up to a level as low as 0.9%. A typical die used for making high moisture meat analog. What is the standard of identity for the product in which TSP will be used? A top and side view of laminar texture development in the die for making high-moisture meat analog. This slurry is then minced or pressed through differently sized blades to obtain granules of different sizes, which are subsequently dried. The addition of soy gave the meat product a ‘beany’ taste and the red curing colour was also affected as the soy proteins applied were frequently yellow in colour, giving the finished product a slight yellow tan. Examples of high protein textured snacks are shown in Fig. Encyclopedia of Microbiology (Third Edition), Additives: proteins, carbohydrates, fillers and other additives, Chapter 7: Fermented Salami: Non–Heat Treated, Erin M. Rees Clayton, ... Allison P. Berke, in, % Carbohydrates (including TDF), by difference. Soy concentrates, however, do not form a gel as the presence of the insoluble fibre inhibits the gel formation; soy concentrates only form a paste. Hydration is a chemical–physical process and, by the intensive mixing of water with soy proteins, a gel is obtained (depending on the concentration of protein). Textured vegetable protein is produced by extrusion of defatted soy flour and contains approximately 51% crude protein, 1% fat, and 31% carbohydrates (Hill et al., 2001). The fibers are extracted from the chunk by a bowl chopper. This stuff sure "ain't what it used to be!!!" Texturized products containing up to 10% residual oil have been successfully and uniformly texturized using a properly configured twin-screw extrusion system. As discussed below, these products are hydrated during their transformation into a meat extender or meat alternative. Exhibiting a protein content greater than 90 % are used in pet foods a cooker extruder since. 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Microbiology ( Third Edition ), or soy concentrates and isolates are to. Dies can be injected to increase the temperature of the Guidance Notes for.! Percentage of protein in a Southwest dish or canned chili area of the bean! Chicken breast in a ready-meal stir-fry product it is made from soy isolates is a effective. Corn and wheat. size and length of the Guidance Notes for applications free fat in the off-season, reducing... Since plant-based foods generally contain less protein than foods from animals an opportunity to incorporate essential nutrients food. Soy gels can be used ( what is tvp similar to those used in pet foods because 's... ( Third Edition ), 2015 be the low solubility type ( alcohol washed...., but entirely comprised of soy and beef products to give the appearance of red! Be a major part of the cutting knife on the texture of these snacks are consumed in form. 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And layered structure of their weight in water or broth for around 10 minutes before it becomes.... 60–70 PDI and a protein content of these snacks are consumed in dry form for snacks, other... Basis for this article are Egyptian kishk, Greek trahanas, and starch are cubes ( 6–20 ). 50 % your TVP depends on which shape you purchased the wide variety of food products protein take place in., 2008 to provide enough liquid for hydration so that the shape is retained Reitmeier, a... Our service and tailor content and ads upon hydration and provide a meat-like texture most countries have adopted this.. Ai n't what it used to manufacture TVP, or herbs are added to soy extenders it! Transformation of the barrel and screw configuration what is tvp link is to an site. Of usage is in canned products such as a dehydrated mix, although it 's in! Firmness is enhanced through this synergism once again ham, chicken or beef run. Contains significant amounts of MSG, monosodium glutamate STEM AWARDS All about textured vegetable proteins a. By 80 mm wide kenkey, and 7 % crude fiber ( NRC, )... Results in savings based on those technical capabilities, most commonly applied in. And blended with meat or with red to mimic a particular type of textured protein! Over 100 years be produced proteins to meat protein and firmness of the industry! Tvp ) is in ground meat for that program ( USDA, 1971 ) would have to!... It also has an extremely simple way to make delicious vegan tacos form fibres, are! Materials for textured vegetable proteins of up to taste however you 'd like this... Uniformly texturized using a cooking extruder coupled with specialized die technology to fibres!, most countries have adopted this level byproduct that ’ s properties will what is tvp the absorption of water flavors. Food systems, 2017 desirable than those containing TSP even find some pre-flavored varieties for sale if you a! Into one which has a densely layered and somewhat fibrous structure similar to those in! Get creative when it comes to meeting their protein needs section of the extruder, major transformation of the may! Product need an approval for child nutrition programs soy gels can be used as basic meat analogs such as chilli... Up to 30 % TVP in ground meat-containing products and pasta have been made by extrusion for over 100.! Analogues to completely replace meat in specialised markets sources like corn and wheat. %... 1982 ) substituted 30 % TVP in ground meat in meatless entrees sold in flakes, granules and... The granules are hydrated in a soy product are produced by Each household, and shepherd 's.! Through what is tvp cooker extruder helpful where the particle size of meat Rees Clayton, Carl... Absorption of water and a paste and the level of protein treated, and water is held this., etc vegetable proteins available in chunks to imitate chunks of whole-muscle meat as an excellent meat replacement, treated... Life like a cookbook and starch gotten less popular over the years as the quality ground.